Original Dinosaur Egg Pigments Found

first_img(Visited 669 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 Add this to your dinosaur soft tissue collection: eggshell pigment proteins that allowed scientists to tell the eggs were blue.Eggs of an oviraptorid dinosaur found in China are still blue and red from the original pigment. Bob Yirka reports the find in Phys.org:The team reports that theirs was the first effort to seriously study color in dinosaur eggs. It came about after the team noted some Heyuannia huangi fossilized eggs that had a bluish tint—researchers had previously assumed the tint was due to mineralization, but the new team thought maybe there was more to it. Prior research had shown that Heyuannia huangi were dinosaurs with parrot-like beaks that walked on hind legs. The team used mass spectrometry and chromatographic separation to take a closer look at the eggs and detected traces of biliverdin and protoporphyrin, pigments commonly found in modern colored bird eggs. The eggs were also dated back to the Late Cretaceous period, which ran from 100 to 66 million years ago.Credit: PeerJ (2017). DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3706The soft tissue remnants consist of protoporphyrin (PP) and biliverdin (BV), organic molecules involved in the heme cycle. They are known to provide color and structural strength in birds’ eggs. “Protoporphyrin (PP) and biliverdin (BV) give rise to the enormous diversity in avian egg coloration,” the authors say in their open-access PeerJ paper. These molecules do not result from inorganic processes; “Both pigments are supposed to be synthesized de novo in the shell gland tissue,” they say. The molecules were not from the surroundings: “We identified unmodified, preserved PP and BV eggshell pigments in all three oviraptorid samples and proved that these eggshells were the sole source of pigments by demonstrating the absence of BV and PP in the investigated sample of adjacent sediment.Did they expect these organic molecules to survive for 100 million years?In terms of pigment taphonomy [preservation potential], the oldest confirmed record of eggshell PP and BV traces is in subfossil moa eggs from New Zealand (Igic et al., 2009) which demonstrates their preservation potential on a time scale of 103 years, but also the loss of the more labile BV through time due to degradation processes, dissolution and transport via percolating aqueous fluids. Other related biomolecules with a reported fossil record are hemes (Greenwalt et al., 2013), and chlorophylls (Leavitt, 1993). Both have been identified with minimal or no diagenetic alteration from Mesozoic and Cenozoic fossil deposits, supporting the possibility of eggshell pigment preservation in fluvial or alluvial oxidative deposits such as those from eastern and southern China.This find pushes the Darwinian age of PP and BV by four orders of magnitude (thousands of years to tens of millions of Darwin Years). The only reason these authors claim that hemes and chlorophylls have a “possibility” of surviving millions of years is because the evolutionary timeline requires them to. And yet scientific knowledge of what physical processes do to these molecules, PP and BV, strongly indicate that should be long gone:Since the preserved fossil oviraptor eggshell color suggests originally higher BV concentrations, taphonomy needs to be considered to generate a realistic, native oviraptor egg color reconstruction. Because BV is more reactive and more hydrophilic, and thus soluble in sediment-percolating aqueous fluids, the concentrations of unmodified, preserved pigments after at least 66 million years of sedimentary burial are much more likely to be significantly lowered than those of the more stable, hydrophobic PP (Falk, 1964).Is it possible that the BV was never leached by water in over 66 million years? It seems incredible. But instead of being astonished that these organic molecules, original to the eggshells, could survive as far back as the alleged age of dinosaurs, the authors pivot and focus on whether eggshell color provides evidence of “convergent evolution” or not. They dwell on comparisons between dinosaur and bird egg-laying patterns, looking for evolutionary clues. That’s all that Phys.org talks about, too, without providing the readers any hint that finding organic molecules from dinosaurs represents a serious date problem for Darwinists.The authors expect many more examples to surface. They end by dreaming that finding more of these molecules will help reveal more about evolution:Our study extends the origin of colored eggs from crown birds to oviraptorid dinosaurs. The result has important implications both for the origin of avian biology and the reproductive biology of theropods dinosaurs. This work also broadens the scope of paleontological research on molecular preservation and ecology to hard vertebrate tissues….The second aspect of our work focuses on its implications for molecular and soft tissue preservation through deep time. Chemically stable, relatively small biological molecules such as PP and BV appear to be protected from complete degradation over millions of years in carbonate biomineral matrices, in an oxidative sediment milieu. Similar biomolecule preservation may also be present in enamel, dentine and bone mineral. Ancient biomolecules and the soft tissues which they construct pave the way to trace life and its behaviors through time and, thus, invite further studies since they are easily detectable, more abundant than expected, and revolutionary in their ecological implications.No matter the observation, “deep time” and evolution survive. Those Darwinian concepts are immune from falsifiability. “Cryptic coloration evolved to match the predominant shades of color found in the nesting environment,” they say in the face of this anti-deep-time observation. It evolved. That’s the escape hatch from every problem.From findings like this, we expect that if paleontologists ever did find a Precambrian rabbit with preserved soft tissue, the response would be twofold: (1) ‘Well, what do you know; soft tissue can survive into the Precambrian after all’ and (2) ‘Well I’ll be darned; rabbits must have had a ghost lineage into the Ediacaran period.’Darwin skeptics and critics of ‘deep time’ need to collect an overwhelming stack of soft tissue finds along with quotes that such materials could never survive for tens of thousands of years, let alone millions. Then we should plop the whole stack on Ken Miller’s desk like he did on Michael Behe’s table at the Dover trial with his alleged evidence for evolution. Indeed; plop the stack on everyone’s desk in the Darwin Party castle. Even then, it’s doubtful that any of them would repent. Our only hope is to let this powerful evidence speak to young budding scientists who have not yet been brainwashed.last_img read more

Workflow Tip: Use Bundles in FCPX To Archive Your Projects

first_imgArchiving master files of your projects is never a fun task, but using bundles in FCPX makes it a whole lot easier.For years, I had a terrible system for archiving my final cuts of commercial and personal projects. I’d typically only create one master file, which of course meant that if I ever needed that file in a different resolution or codec, I’d need to re-encode it. Not the end of the world in many cases, but in circumstances where I needed that file right away it was a bit of a pain to dig through old archival drives to find, convert, and upload it to a video hosting site.My current method of archiving has become far easier and more streamlined as a result of the bundles feature in FCPX, which effectively allows you to output multiple deliverables with a single click.Currently, most of my projects are shot in 4K, so this is how my bundle is set up to archive final 4K projects:4K Data Master (ProRes HQ)1080p Data Master (ProRes HQ)1080p Web Master (H.264)Both the 4K and 1080p Data Masters will output to my internal drive, while the 1080p web master will not only output to my hard drive, but will also automatically upload to Vimeo with a password. This means that even if a client calls me while I’m on vacation asking for a cut of an old project, I can simply pull up my Vimeo app and send them a link straight from my phone.Bundles are a very powerful way to create masters of your projects in a single click, and you obviously can and should customize your bundle to your specific work needs. Regardless of how you set it up, simply taking the time to arrange a bundle structure in Final Cut Pro X in the first place can save you hours of time down the line, searching for and converting older projects.last_img read more

Medial collateral ligament

first_imgThe medial collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the tibia (shin bone). The medial collateral ligament provides stability against valgus stress. A valgus stress is described as a pressure applied to the leg that tries to bend the lower leg sideways at the knee, away from the other leg. Tackling in football or soccer are two common causes of this injury.Review Date:6/13/2010Reviewed By:Linda J. Vorvick, Medical Director, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Washington School of Medicine; and C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.last_img read more

4-Star Point Guard Cassius Winston Commits To Michigan State

first_imgCassius Winston committing to Michigan State at a press conference.Cassius Winston Michigan State CommitMichigan State head coach Tom Izzo has done it again. Friday, the Spartans officially landed the services of four-star point guard Cassius Winston. Winston chose MSU over Stanford and Pittsburgh during a ceremony at his high school – Detroit Jesuit. Cassius Winston selects @msubasketball today! pic.twitter.com/yOKAYj5q8C— Athletics (@udjesuitsports) September 18, 2015Detroit Jesuit guard Cassius Winston just committed to Michigan State. Tom Izzo may be on the verge of his best recruiting class ever.— Dan Wetzel (@DanWetzel) September 18, 2015Winston, who is listed at 6-foot-2, 194 pounds on 247Sports, joins five-star guard Joshua Langford and four-star power forward Nick Ward in Michigan State’s 2016 class. If the Spartans are also able to land five-star small forward Miles Bridges, they may have the top recruiting class in the entire country.last_img read more

PM Launches Project to Assist Youth in Majesty Gardens

first_imgSeveral unemployed young persons from Majesty Gardens in South West St. Andrew are to benefit from the implementation of a training and income generating initiative, valued at just under $12 million.Prime Minister, the Most Hon. Portia Simpson Miller, on Tuesday, May 14, launched the ‘Income Generating Opportunities for Unemployed Young People through Linkages with Established Micro, Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (MSMEs)’ project, at the St. Andrew Settlement in Majesty Gardens, Kingston.The Jamaica Exporters’ Association (JEA), in collaboration with the St. Andrew Settlement, will execute the project, which is being sponsored by the Jamaica Social Investment Fund (JSIF), with funding support from the European Union Poverty Reduction Programme (PRP).The Prime Minister encouraged beneficiaries to take full advantage of the opportunities for self development. She told them that through participation in the project, they will be embarking on a path that could change their lives forever.“Not long from now, I want to hear of exporters graduating from this programme,” Mrs. Simpson Miller told the participants.She urged them to pay attention to the training and never give up, no matter how difficult it gets.“You are on a path and you are destined for success. No matter what, no matter how frustrating it might become, continue your programme and ensure you graduate. It is critical. It is about self development. You must be able to stand tall and shoulder to shoulder with people anywhere in the world,” the Prime Minister added.The project will provide vocational training and internships for persons between the ages of 18 and 35 in areas such as creative craft from recyclable materials, and traditional craft; dressmaking; tailoring; crochet making and design; woodwork and carpentry; and jewellery making.The beneficiaries will also be exposed to business readiness training, which include basic accounting and record keeping, marketing and sales, inventory management as well as basic computer applications, to equip them to carry out basic research and communication on the internet. They will also receive training in business communication, office deportment and etiquette skills.Managing Director of JSIF, Scarlette Gillings, said the project is expected to be implemented over a five-month period.In the meantime, General Manager of the JEA, Jean Smith, said the objective of the project is to provide support for young people in Majesty Gardens.“We anticipate that these beneficiaries, through the empowerment tools and the programmes that will be provided, will be able to contribute in a more meaningful way to the development of their families and to their communities and also to the wider society, both in terms of the Industrial community here on Spanish Town Road and to the wider Jamaica,” she said.The original target number was 25 young persons. However, JEA President, Andrew Collins, informed that this target has already been exceeded, explaining that in several instances the training sessions have close to 50 persons.“This speaks to the desire of our young people to acquire income generating knowledge and skills, which can make them workplace ready or which can be used to become young entrepreneurs,” Mr. Collins said.“We are convinced that at the end of the programme we will have some beneficiaries entering the export sector, either as entrepreneurs or through employment in existing export companies,” he said.Contact: Andrea Brahamlast_img read more

GasLog Partners Earnings Shrink

first_imgzoom Greece-based owner and operator of LNG carriers GasLog Partners has seen its profit for the second quarter of 2017 decrease by 9 percent to USD 20.5 million from USD 22.5 million seen in the three-month period ended June 30, 2016.The decrease in profit is attributable to an increase of USD 2.3 million in net financial costs, mainly due to increased interest expense and loss on interest rate swaps in the three months ended June 30, 2017, partially offset by an increase in profit from operations of USD 0.4 million.Despite a decrease in profit, the company’s quarterly revenues witnessed a slight rise of 2 percent ending the quarter at USD 65.2 million, compared to USD 64 million reported in the same period a year earlier.Subsequent to the end of the second quarter, the company completed the acquisition of the GasLog Geneva from GasLog for USD 211 million, with attached multi-year charter to a subsidiary of Shell. Earlier in the quarter, the company also finalized the purchase of LNG tanker GasLog Greece.“Following the successful acquisition of the GasLog Greece, GasLog Partners delivered our highest-ever quarterly Partnership Performance Results for Revenues and EBITDA, among other metrics,” Andrew Orekar, Chief Executive Officer, said.The acquisitions expanded the Partnership’s fleet to 11 wholly owned LNG carriers.last_img read more

Keith Urban Guitars To Benefit Charity

first_imgFour-time GRAMMY Award winner and American Idol judge Keith Urban, long committed to numerous music education programs, today announced that he has teamed with leading interactive lifestyle retailer HSN to offer an affordable line of guitars to as many aspiring musicians as possible, as well as to those seeking to learn how to play.Keith Urban Announces The World Premiere Of The URBAN Guitar Collection Debuting Live On HSN November 3rdThe URBAN Guitar Collection, which includes two one-hour instructional DVDs and his first custom created, limited-edition acoustic and electric guitar line, will become available for sale exclusively on HSN, HSN.com and via HSN Mobile on Sunday, November 3rd, 2013 at 12:01 A.M. (ET).A portion of the proceeds from the URBAN Guitar Collection, as well as guitar packages, will go to Mr Holland’s Opus Foundation and The GRAMMY Foundation.“I’ve watched some of the greatest guitarists in the world perform and I’ve seen people just learning how to play,” said Urban. “The looks on their faces are almost always the same and the connection with the instrument is genuine.”The URBAN Guitar Collection features two versions of the “Phoenix Edition” guitar – electric and acoustic/electric – and will be available in Brazilian Burst, Emerald Brazilian Burst, Rich Black and Vintage Natural Ivory. It is part of a 21-piece set that includes a custom amplifier, coated guitar strings, embroidered guitar strap, guitar picks and more.“We are thrilled to welcome Keith Urban to HSN,” said Joy Mangano, President of Ingenious Designs, an affiliate of HSN. “Great stories and great storytelling are at the heart of everything we do, and I can’t think of a better guitarist and storyteller than Keith. His guitar-playing skills are legendary, and the passion he has for music will surely inspire our viewers to pick up a guitar and play when Keith makes his debut in November.”Urban recently released his seventh studio album FUSE, which marked the first time that ANY country artist has simultaneously debuted at #1 on the all-genre charts in the United States, Canada and Australia. He is currently on the road for his “Light The Fuse Tour”. At each show, Keith uses the standard Phoenix guitar – the same guitar that will be available at HSN – and then signs it and gives it away to one lucky fan in the audience.Urban has sold more than 15 million albums. He’s won four GRAMMY Awards and was the first artist to win the Country Music Association’s Horizon Award, for best new artist, and go on to win Best Male Vocalist, a title he’s captured three times, as well as the coveted Entertainer of the Year Award. He’s won five Academy of Country Music Awards, an American Music Award and People’s Choice Award. He’s had 15 No. 1 singles and five consecutive platinum or multi-platinum albums.Source:PR Newswirelast_img read more

A mothers journey from the jail cell

first_imgAPTN National NewsMany Aboriginal women coming out of the prison system find it next to impossible to transition back into society.That’s why a new centre opened its doors in Winnipeg.APTN National News reporter Tiar Wilson has this story.last_img

Trans Mountain granted injunction against pipeline protesters at two BC sites

first_imgParker was also unsuccessful in his request for an order requiring the removal of a structure called the Watch House, sayingit’s on a pipeline right of way and would cause significant safety risks.“I’m sensitive to the concern of those who created this Watch House, that it is of considerable significance to them,” Afflecksaid of the structure that was erected near the Burnaby Terminal on Saturday, when people marched against the pipeline. VANCOUVER, B.C. – Protesters must be restrained from obstructing the expansion of the Trans Mountain pipeline, says a British Columbia Supreme Court judge who has granted the company an injunction aimed at preventing people from entering within five metres of two work sites.Justice Kenneth Affleck said Thursday he felt it necessary to make a decision on the second day of a hearing instead of issuing a written order involving outraged demonstrators who have blocked vehicles and workers at the Burnaby Terminal and the Westridge Marine Terminal.The injunction is indefinite, allowing Trans Mountain to continue work it’s legally entitled to do after the federal government approved the twinning of an existing pipeline from Edmonton to Burnaby in the belief it is in the best interest of Canada, Affleck said. Trans Mountain has said that while protests began last November, it sought an injunction after demonstrators began intensifying their blockades recently when trees were being cleared. It said construction at the sites in Burnaby, B.C., is expected to last until December 2020.Affleck agreed with lawyers for two of 15 named defendants in a notice of civil claim that a 50-metre perimeter as part of aninterim injunction he granted last week was too broad because it encroached on private property and trails.Trans Mountain’s lawyer, Shaun Parker, requested a structure called Camp Cloud near the Burnaby Terminal be removed, calling it a “hotbed of aggressive activity” for protesters who want to “destroy the project.”But the judge said it will stay.“In my view there has to be a means of allowing the protesters who object to this work to remain reasonably close to the site,” Affleck said. “The plaintiff is going to have to tolerate a certain amount of agitation.”center_img He said Trans Mountain would have to demonstrate any emergency need to remove the Watch House but would then have to replace it.Casey Leggett, a lawyer for one of the defendants, said citizens have a constitutional right to protest the expansion of the pipeline.“The inconvenience, which my friends call a blockade, hasn’t gotten to the level of establishing irreparable harm,” Leggett said.He read from affidavits presented in court by a Trans Mountain lawyer, saying the company’s security staff noted protesters have sometimes stood peacefully at or near access roads to two marine terminals in Burnaby without disrupting vehicles or workers and left after police arrived.He said in one case, a woman was seen praying on a road and didn’t engage with security staff while on another day a woman sat in a lawn chair as vehicles were guided around her at slow speed.Affleck said while the first protesters’ conduct was unobjectionable, the second woman had no right to sit in the middle of a public road and the police would be justified in removing her.The judge also suggested Leggett was cherry-picking incidents that did not involve blockades aimed at stopping work at the terminals.Leggett replied that Trans Mountain had done the same and also focused on blockades rather than inconvenience, which he said does not justify an injunction.Activists have said they will continue opposing the $7.4-billion project despite the injunction.(THE CANADIAN PRESS)last_img read more

So you wanna be SD60 Trustee visit the candidate information meeting tonight

first_imgThe five electoral areas are shown below:Area 1: Cecil Lake, Goodlow and Clayhurst – one trusteeArea 2: Prespatou, Buick, Rose Prairie, Doig RiverFirst Nation, Blueberry River First Nation, North Pine, Montney and Wonowon (east) – one trusteeArea 3: Hudson’s Hope, Upper Cache, Tsay Keh Dene Nation and Williston Lake – one trusteeArea 4: Taylor, Baldonnel and Two Rivers – one trusteeArea 5: Fort St. John, the Upper Halfway, Halfway River First Nation, Wonowon (west), Charlie Lake, Pink Mountain and north to Mile 225 on the Alaska Highway – three trusteesIn order to be eligible to run, you must be over the age of 18, have lived in B.C. for at least six months and be a Canadian citizen. Candidates don’t have to live in the electoral area where they’re running. School District #60 trustees receive an annual indemnity of $13,045 that is paid monthly.Voting day goes on October 20th. For more info click here. FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – So you wanna be an SD60 Trustee? Then visit the School District 60 candidate information meeting Tuesday at 7:00 p.m.The event will show residents exactly what it is like being a trustee for a district with approximately 6,000 students.During this year’s election, seven people will be voted in to represent five electoral areas.  Current board members Bill Snow, Erin Evans and Ida Campbell have all decided to run again while Candace Dow, Jarret Thompson and Linda Stringer will step down.last_img read more